Final Evaluation Report: Impact Evaluation Of The Kenya Resilient Arid Lands Partnership For Integrated Development Activity

This document presents the results of an impact evaluation (IE) of the Kenya Resilient Arid Lands Partnership for Integrated Development Activity’s (Kenya RAPID) borehole sensor intervention. A five-year (2015–2020), US$35.5 million activity implemented under a Global Development Alliance (USAID
agreement number AID-615-A-15-00008), Kenya RAPID was co-funded by USAID, the Swiss
Development Corporation, private sector partners, and the Millennium Water Alliance (MWA) and its
The intervention component of Kenya RAPID that the team evaluated involved installation of sensors on
a set of “strategic” boreholes—defined as those deemed critical during periods of drought—to
track pump functionality and share the information with local water managers and officials. The IE
investigated whether this intervention increased borehole functionality in counties served by Kenya
RAPID (Garissa, Isiolo, Marsabit, Turkana, and Wajir) compared to a set of non-RAPID counties in
northern and central Kenya. In parallel, the team conducted a qualitative analysis of water managers’ and
water users’ perceptions of the intervention and water management issues more generally.
Kenya RAPID’s theory of change for this activity envisioned that improved functionality of strategic
boreholes would result from 1) installation of sensors, with data sharing through mobile applications and
online dashboards as well as accompanying training on sensor data use; 2) establishment of county
operations and maintenance teams; and 3) a dedicated budget for strategic borehole repairs.
The evaluation team designed the IE to answer three specific evaluation questions (EQs):
• EQ 1: Does the intervention using real-time remote sensing data of water points for strategic borehole
management in Kenya RAPID counties lead to increase on-time of strategic boreholes during the drought
• EQ 2: How do water managers perceive the impact of sensor-based systems on their ability to address
borehole functionality, and how does this compare to perceptions of borehole functionality in non-Kenya
RAPID counties?
• EQ 3: Do Kenya RAPID’s sensor-based systems affect user perceptions of borehole functionality and access?